What are the Characteristics of Semiconductors

Sep. 13, 2023

A semiconductor refers to a material that exhibits electrical conductivity properties between that of a conductor and an insulator at room temperature. Common semiconductor materials include silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, among others. Compared to conductors, semiconductors have higher resistance but can still conduct electric current. In contrast to insulators, semiconductors have lower resistance but do not freely conduct electric current.

Characteristics of semiconductor materials used in electronic components include:

Resistance Characteristics: The resistance of semiconductor materials varies with changes in temperature. Within a certain temperature range, the resistance of semiconductor materials decreases as the temperature increases.

Nonlinear Characteristics: The relationship between the resistance of semiconductor materials and voltage or current is not a simple linear one. Instead, it exhibits nonlinear resistance-current and resistance-voltage characteristics.

Photoelectric Effect: Semiconductor materials can convert light energy into electrical energy, known as the photoelectric effect. When light is incident upon semiconductor materials, it generates charge carriers and forms an electric current.

Charging and Discharging Characteristics: Semiconductor materials possess rapid charging and discharging characteristics. Unlike capacitors, semiconductor materials can complete the charging and discharging processes in a very short time.

Semiconductors find applications in various fields, including integrated circuits, consumer electronics, communication systems, photovoltaic power generation, lighting, high-power power conversion, and more. One example of an electronic component made from semiconductor materials is the thermistor, which is sensitive to temperature changes. Thermistors are small, highly sensitive, easy to use, and have a long lifespan. They exhibit different resistance values at different temperatures, making them suitable for controlling temperature variations in electronic circuits.

What are the Characteristics of Semiconductors

This article is provided by JYH HSU Electronics, a manufacturer specialized in producing various electronic components such as capacitors and resistors.

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